Non-invasive and semi-invasive neuro robotic treatment solutions

Here is another quality essay from my other Brazilian student,  Rodrigo San Martin Ignacio Gomes.
"Minimally invasive surgery is a product of recent advancements in neuroimaging and stereotaxy. The next step in neurosurgery is the development of robots, since every day new tools are being developed but each time, smaller size and precision to apply are more and more needed. In this paper, application of robots in non-invasive and semi-invasive neuroproceedings are discussed.
Epilepsy and Stereo-encephalography
About 0.5% of world population is affected by epilepsy. Epileptic seizures are the principal characteristic of this pathology. It affects the brain causing abnormal synchronous discharges of big groups of neurons. Epilepsy can be divided in several categories including focal epilepsies that are characterized by focal-onset seizures and idiopathic generalized epilepsy that are characterized by primary generalized seizures [Jonathan O. & Mark P., 2012].
The electrical activity of the brain in epilepsy started being recorded decades ago with the goal of studying the causes of absence seizures that were characterized in sec 18 for a small loss of conscience, usually not followed by period of lethargy. Electrodes were placed in the brain of rudimentary, the free hand, no prediction of the final electrode position and even placed in position after implantation. The recording of the signals was done in a rudimentary way, so that only the abrupt variations of signals could be detected and recorded.
In the ‘50s, the development and introduction of stereotactic epigenetics area changed radically as the neurosurgical procedure in the investigation of epilepsy was performed. The stereotactic localization and allowed reasonably accurate access to intracranial structures through a single hole in the skull. After the publication of reports of three cases in which seizures had been reduced after cortical resections, eletroencephalical recordings gave the origin estereoencefalography (SEEG), which revolutionized the concept of the epileptogenic zone [Hans O.L. et al., 2006], reaching the modern concept that this is the "minimal area the cortex that must be resected to produce seizure-freedom".
Talairach and Bancaud 1962 Introduced Stereotactic electroencefalography (SEEG) and it Became the standard invasive procedures in Europe for exploring epileptic foci, Especially deeper epileptic foci, such as limbic network, because of the low rate of surgical complications and the capability of the three dimensional mapping of the epileptogenic zone [Hans O.L. et al., 2006]."

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